#BHexposed: An Open Letter to B&H Photo Video


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Worker Voices


Voices of B&H Photo Video Warehouse Workers

To the owners and management of B&H Photo Video:

We are writing today in support of the over 200 B&H Photo Video warehouse workers who are seeking to form a union and secure a contract to protect themselves against the dangerous work conditions and discrimination they are currently facing.

As photo and video professionals, artists, music professionals, educators, and students, we believe that the images we create have the agency for social change. This is why it is deeply upsetting to learn that the equipment and materials used to create our work has been brought to us on the backs of other workers who are treated so unfairly on a daily basis

B&H Photo Video warehouse workers describe alarming problems:

  • Exposure to dusts including fiberglass, benzene and asbestos, that led to chronic nosebleeds and skin rashes
  • Lack of access to water that led to some workers developing kidney stones
  • Being instructed to carry heavy loads alone, leading to musculoskeletal injuries
  • Workers required to work 13-16 hour shifts with only one 45 minute lunch break, and no other breaks
  • Verbal abuse including being called derogatory names
  • Little or no safety training
  • On one occasion workers were not allowed to leave the warehouse for more than 30 minutes during a fire that was filling the building with smoke
  • Retaliation against workers organizing a union

We stand with the workers of the #BHexposed campaign, and call on B&H Photo Video to allow the workers to form a union, free from intimidation and retaliation, and quickly negotiate a fair contract. Many of us can no longer in good conscience patronize B&H, and we stand together closely watching the company, ready to act and support the workers.

We also ask that universities, schools, non-profits, unions, photo agencies, and other groups follow the lead of WITNESS and IATSE in publicly declaring their support for the B&H warehouse workers.

Signed,
The Photo/Video Alliance


See also


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  • Chris Kasper, Artist/editor
  • Danny Katch, Writer, educator
  • Jonathan Paul Katz, Writer
  • Jason Kaye, Photographer
  • Douglas Kehl, Digital technician
  • Theresa Keil, Photographer
  • Betsy Kelleher, Artist
  • Michael S Kellogg, owner-operator Bella Photo Art and Framing Gallery
  • Alison Kelly, Cinematographer
  • Carlisle Kelly, Photographer
  • Delia kelly, Television editor
  • James Kelly, artist
  • Shane F Kelly, Director of photography
  • Mark Kendall, Artist
  • Jordan Kenna, Photographer
  • Jonathan Kennedy, Filmmaker/photographer
  • asia kepka, photographer
  • John Kersten, DIT
  • Kyle Kessler, musician, media educator
  • Meg Kettell, Camera
  • David Ketterer, Filmmaker
  • Jahd Khalil, Journalist
  • Sant Khalsa, Artist / Educator
  • Zofeen Khan, Freelance photographer
  • Katie Khouri, Graphic designer
  • Stephanie Kim, Painter
  • Jenny Kinsel, Photographer, Educator
  • Mark Kiracofe, Stagehand
  • Carey Kirkella, Photographer
  • Matt Kirsch, Curator
  • Blas Kisic, Production sound mixer
  • Suzanne Kite, artist
  • Michael Klein, editor
  • Rya Kleinpeter, artist
  • Ed klumpp, IATSE 8 Sound Engineer
  • Elizabeth Knafo, film / publishing
  • Andalusia Knoll, Video Journalist
  • Quaid Kocur, Photographer
  • Rita Koehler, Photographer
  • AC Kojreau, Creative
  • Mariel Kon, Photographer
  • Paul Kopeikin, Kopeikin Gallery
  • Emily Kornblut, filmmaker/producer
  • Stephen Korns, Artist, Designer
  • Allison Korotkin, Director of Photography
  • Nicole Koschmann, Filmmaker and Instructor of Cinema
  • Sarah koshar, Labor organizer/photographer
  • Demetra Kourri, Architect/Urbanisy
  • Stella Kramer, photography consultant
  • Sylvia Gold Krane, Mammography
  • Pam Kray, Filmmaker
  • Jeff Kreines, Filmmaker
  • Kate Kressmann-Kehoe, Video Producer
  • carolina kroon, Photographer/videographer
  • Kevin kruger, photographer
  • David Kruta, Camera Operator, ICG Local 600
  • Dave Kube, key grip/dolly grip
  • Edward Kuharski, Architect/Photographer
  • Rob Kunz, Photographer/Multimedia Specialist
  • Mark Kushneir, Director of Outside Operations
  • Tara Kutz, Filmmaker
  • Cheryl LaBash, independent journalist with focus on revolutionary Cuba
  • Alan Labb, Professor
  • Thomas Lail, Artist
  • Michael Laing, Photographer
  • Carolyn Lambert, artist
  • Kent Lambert, Videomaker/Media Technology Educator
  • Panos Lambrou, Photography
  • Panos Lambrou, Photographer
  • Andrew Lampert, Artist and Film Preservationist
  • Stephanie Land, Artist
  • Justin N. Lane, Photographer + retouching artist
  • Stacy Lanyon, Photographer/ blogger
  • Isaac Lapides, Web Developer
  • Brian Larsen, Motion Designer
  • Gretchen Larsen, Art Director, International Rescue Committee
  • Jared Larson, Videographer
  • Sarah Lauck, photographer
  • Glenn LaVertu, Professor
  • William Laviano, Professional photographer
  • dimitra lavrakas, photojournalist
  • Nick Lawrence, Photographer
  • Hayward Leach, Writer/Filmmaker
  • Eduardo Leal, photojournalist
  • Rachel Lears, filmmaker
  • Norene Leddy, artist, educator
  • Nathea Lee, Photographer
  • ben lees, photographer
  • Elsie St. Leger, Interior designer/amateur photographer
  • Abby Legge, Graphic Designer
  • Michelle Lehman, Member, IATSE Local 205
  • Tovah Leibowitz, Filmmaker
  • Sarah Lenaghan, Student
  • Karen Lenz, Photographer
  • Danny Leo, Producer / Director
  • Erica Leone, Photographer
  • Chester Leopold, Student
  • Isa Leshko, Artist
  • JB Letchinger, Cinematographer/Photographer/Director
  • Justin Levesque, Artist
  • Jordan Levie, Camera assistant
  • Abigail Levine, artist/ professor, Wesleyan University
  • Adam R. Levine, Filmmaker and college professor
  • Mel Levine, Photographer
  • Josh Levy, IATSE 476 Studio Mechanic
  • Sara Naomi Lewkowicz, Photojournalist
  • Jennifer S. Ponce de León, Professor
  • Amy Li, Photographer
  • David Liburd, Independent contractor
  • Colleen lidz, Photographer
  • Becca Lieb, artist
  • Molly Linares, organizer, TIGRA
  • Alicia Lincoln, Photographer
  • Hank Linhart, Free Lance Media Artist
  • Hagen Linss, Makeup artist
  • Deborah Lipman, 1st Camera Assistant IATSE Local 600
  • Matthew Liricao, Photographer
  • Victor Littlejohn, Artist
  • Clint Litton, IATSE Local 600 Cameraman
  • Renee liu, Artist/photographer
  • Jason Livingston, Filmmaker/Teacher
  • Casey Llewellyn, Filmmaker/Playwright
  • Gudrun Lock, adjunct professor, media arts
  • Lisa Loew, Film
  • Savanah Loftus, Wedding Photographer
  • Andrea Lomanto, artist, educator
  • Marget Long, Artist/Teacher/Photography
  • Steve D. Long, Video Producer
  • Rob Lonsberry, Photographer/ Naturalist
  • Catherine Lord, Artist and writer
  • Jared Lorenz, Camera Operator / EPK IATSE 667
  • Nikolai Loveikis, Filmmaker, photographer
  • Clarinda Mac Low, artist
  • Naima Lowe, Artist and Film Professor
  • Chris Lowrance, Digital Illustrator, Web Designer
  • Sandra de la Loza, Photography instructor/Artist
  • Jessica Lucas, Television post production, editor
  • Owen Luck, Photographer
  • James Ludwig, Government TV Contractor, Videographer, Photographer
  • Andrew Lyman, Artist
  • kara lynch, time based artist and assoc professor of video and critical studies
  • raphael lyon, filmmaker
  • Andrew López, Engineer
  • Graham MacIndoe, Photographer / teacher
  • Rob macinnis, artist/business owner
  • Randy Mack, filmmaker
  • Madeline, Production Manager
  • Gustavo Madrigal-Pina, Student
  • Erica Magrey, artist
  • Hans Maharawal, Photo
  • Dan Mahoney, Motion Picture technican
  • Paul Mailman, Director of Photography, IATSE Local 600
  • Parker Maimbourg, Filmmaker
  • Terence McCormack Maitland, Boom Operator IATSE Local 52
  • Theodore Majdosz, Photo Journalist
  • cecilia majzoub, photographer / student
  • Yuri Makino, film professor
  • Matt Makinson, Pro Photography Laboratory
  • Arash Malekzadeh, Journalist
  • Michael Mallis, animator
  • Steven Manicastri, Graduate employee/Union activist
  • Sarah Mankoff, photographer
  • Harry Marenstein, Professional musician/ amateur photographer
  • Jonah markowitz, Visual Journalist
  • Carolyn g marks, photographer
  • Phillipe Marquis, photographer
  • Marc Marriott, Freelance Audio Engineer
  • A Martenez, Media Maker/Writer
  • Antonio Martin, Photographer
  • Francis Martin, Broadcast Engineer
  • Geoff Martin, Photographer
  • David Martinez, Independent Filmmaker
  • Marisol Martinez, Artist
  • Nicole Masika, Library assistant
  • Taylor Mason, Cinematographer
  • Mass Ornament Films LLC, Director, Cinematographer
  • Dave Mast, Technical Director/Sound Editor
  • Michelle Materre, Independent film programmer
  • Phil Mathieu, Warehouse worker
  • Amanda Matles, Video producer
  • eric maurer, production engineer / recording engineer
  • Sharon Mayo, Post Production Engineer
  • Gabriel Mccabe, Production assistant freelance
  • Brigid McCaffrey, filmmaker
  • Alexander McCarron, Filmmaker
  • Nancy McCarthy, Artist/Educator
  • Noelle McCleaf, Photography Professor
  • John McClellan, Cinematographer
  • George McClintock, photographer
  • Dan McColl, Photographer
  • Dennis McCoy, photography for many years, now retired.
  • M. McCray, Media
  • Steve McCurry, Photojournalist
  • Kevin McFarland, Musician
  • Laura McGough, Media Curator
  • Nick McGrady, Photography
  • Erik McGregor, freelance photographer
  • Greg McKay, Photographer
  • Steven mclaurin, camera assistant
  • Scott McMorrow, Photographer
  • Kate McNeely, photographer/organizer
  • Robert McNeely, photographer, former White House Photographer for Bill Clinton
  • Rocker Meadows, Photographer
  • Peter Meanwell, Radio Producer
  • Meryl Meisler, Photographic Based Artist
  • Salem Mekuria, Art Professor, Wellesley College, independent filmmaker
  • Liseida Melendez, Educator
  • Nayeli Melendez, Student
  • Rosina Memolo, Photographer/fine artist/ activist
  • Hilda Mendez, photographer
  • Robert Menzer, Photographer/Camera Technician
  • Greg Meola, Grip/grip truck owner
  • Bryan mercer, Director at a non-profit
  • Sina Mesdaghi, Architect
  • Ezekiel Metcalf, Audio Engineer IATSE #42
  • Martin Meyers, photographer
  • Francesco Miccoli, photographer
  • Gleb Mikhalev, Videographer
  • Chuck Miller, writer, photographer, blogger
  • Dan Miller, Artist
  • Haley Miller, Photographer
  • Karalynn Miller, Media Producer
  • Phyllis Miller, Photographer
  • Victoria Miller, Organizer/photographer
  • Sherry Millner, Video artist/educator
  • Kathy Mills, artist
  • Tania Miranda, Videojournalist
  • lexi mitchell, photographer
  • Sebastian Mlynarski, Director
  • Chuck Mohan, Guyanese American Workers United
  • mackenzie mollo, artist
  • Sean Molloy, photographer
  • Amy Moore, Photographer
  • KaLisa Moore, teacher
  • Rod Moore, educator
  • Spencer Moore, Visual Artist
  • Jessica Moreau, Purchasing Specialist
  • Netza Moreno, Photographer
  • Freddie Morgan, Media maker
  • Jeanel Moril, Artiste
  • Holly Mosher, film
  • Laura Moss, Production Designer
  • Laura X Moya, Visual Artist/Filmmaker
  • Lucas Mulder, Photographer
  • Thomas Mulligan, Artist
  • Colleen Mullins, Artist/Photographer/long time customer
  • Dijana Muminovic, Photojournalist
  • Walter Murch, Editor
  • Ivan Murdzhev, Cameraman/Photographer
  • Joni Murphy, Writer/ Artist
  • Kirsten Murphy, Visual artist
  • Heather Musto, photographer
  • Dan Myricks, Photographer
  • Hira Nabi, graduate student/filmmaker
  • Charina Nadura, Videographer
  • Laura Napier, Artist
  • Devon Narine-Singh, Student
  • Stephen Nathans-Kelly, Videographer
  • Fredrik Naumann, photographer
  • Raymond Navarro, Photography
  • Leslie Neale, Producer/Director
  • Seth Nehil, Asst. Professor, sound and video
  • Carol Neidle, professor
  • Drew I. Nelson, Gaffer
  • Sabrina L. Nelson, Educator and Filmmaker
  • Tara Merenda Nelson, Professor of Film and Video, Curator of Moving Image Collections, Visual Studies Workshop
  • Natalie Nesvaderani, visual anthropologist
  • Ryan Nethery, Cinematographer
  • Faya Neto, photographer
  • matthias neumann, artist
  • Elizabeth Neveu, IATSE 52
  • Yvonne Ng, Audiovisual archivist
  • Karmay Ngai, Photographer
  • Tin Nguyen, Artist
  • Darini Nicholas, Professor
  • Tim Nicholas, Filmmaker
  • Jim Nicholl, Audio Engineer
  • Alicia Nieves, Student
  • Michael Nigro, Director-journalists
  • Terri Nilliasca, Social Movement Fellow CUNY Grad Ctr
  • Zishun Ning, videographer
  • Aliza Nisenbaum, Painter/ Assistant Professor Visual Arts, Columbia University
  • Joe Mama Nitzberg, artist
  • Steve Nolan, Creative Media Director
  • Claudio Nolasco, Photographer
  • John Northrup, Documentary Producer
  • Lorie Novak, artist/photography professor
  • jen nugent, artist
  • Cynthia O'Dell, Photography Professor - DePauw University
  • Michael O'Donnell, Writer/Filmmaker
  • Christopher O'Leary, Professor of Photography, Artist
  • Alice O'Malley, photographer
  • Axel Öberg, PHOTOGRAPHER
  • Occupy Wall Street Screenprinters
  • Justin officer, Photographer
  • Jeanette Oleksa, Costume Designer/Business Owner
  • Andreas Olesen, Photographer
  • Clifford Oliver, Photographer
  • Arturo Olmos, Photographer
  • Joe Oppedisano, Professional Photographer & Teacher
  • David Oppenheim, Sound Designer
  • Thomas Orozco, Y1 Sound Mixer (IA Local 695)
  • Julian Ortiz, photographer
  • Adam Overton, Artist, Organizer
  • Cliff Owen, Photojournalist
  • David Paccer, Post Production
  • Philip Pacheco, Photojournalist
  • Anibal Padrino, Artist
  • Claudia M. Palacios, Photojournalist
  • susan Pallatto, Photographer
  • Afonso Palma, Artist
  • Louise Palmberg, Photographer
  • Brian Palmer, Photographer
  • mario paoli, edito/educator
  • Share Paradise, Artist
  • Katey parker, Filmmaker
  • Matt Parker, Photographer
  • Troy Parla, Photographer - Union Member CWA
  • Ahndraya Parlato, Artist/professor
  • John Pasagiannis, Music
  • Shani Patel, Filmmaker
  • Ari Paul, Editor/Writer
  • Jared Paul, Audio engineer
  • Peter Pavlakis, Video Person
  • Dan Pavsic, photographer
  • Matthew Joseph Paybe, composer
  • Hilary Peabody, Film Editor
  • Stacy Pearsall, Photographer/Photojournalist
  • Mike Pearson, Head photographer
  • Julia Pello, student
  • Ke Peng, Photographer
  • People's Climate Arts
  • Steve Peralta, Photographer
  • Cressa Perloff, The Photo Review journal
  • Darrell Perry, Photo Editor, Producer
  • Sondra Perry, Artist
  • Sondra Perry, Artist
  • Adam Peters, Retoucher
  • Brad Peterson, theater designer
  • Howard Pflanzer, Playwright/Poet/Adjunct Professor
  • Cyrille Phipps, Camera/Editor
  • Sasha Phyars-Burgess, photographer
  • Cheyenne Picardo, Filmmaker
  • Seth Pierson, Photographer/Photo Editor/Archivist
  • syndi pilar, Video Editor/Photographer
  • Beatriz pinheiro, Artist
  • Pamela Pitt, Artist
  • Davyd Pittman, Creative Director
  • Alison Plante, Film Composer
  • Randel Plowman, Teacher/ artist
  • Robert Pluma, Photographer/Videographer
  • Zach Poff, Technician and Instructor, Cooper Union Film/Video
  • Shelby Pollack, Photography and architecture student
  • Jenna Pope, freelance photographer
  • Dan Porvin , Supervisor of Film/Video Facilities, Cooper Union Film/Video
  • Dietmar Post, Filmmaker
  • Ariel Poster, Graphic Designer USA 829
  • Fawn Potash, Program Manager, Bard MFA
  • Vaj Potenza, Producer/ Editor / Film-maker
  • Kressent Pottenger, Registrar, Area Rep. NYSUT/AFT Local 6420, Cooper Union
  • Rowena Potts, Documentary Filmmaker
  • Alan Powell, video artist - educator
  • Steve Powers, Tour Operator
  • William Powhida, Artist
  • Clàudia Prat, filmmaker
  • Rit Premnath, Artist/Educator
  • john Preston, cinematographer
  • Heather Prince, Line Producer/Production Manager
  • Darin Principe, Nurse Practitioner/Documentary Photographer
  • Leoncio Provoste, 1st Assistant Cameraman
  • Lauren Pruitt, Camera
  • Chris Pugh, Photographer
  • William R Pyke, Video maker
  • David S. Pyle, Photographer
  • Eileen Quinlan, Artist
  • Alice Quinn, Production Coordinator
  • Alice Quinn, Photographer
  • Iva Radivojevic, Filmmaker
  • Julio Radney, Photographer
  • Sara Greenberger Rafferty, Artist, photographer, professor
  • marisa ragozino, educator
  • Natasha Raheja, Documentary Filmmaker
  • Chris Rahm, Filmmaker / Producer
  • Cassandra Raihl, artist
  • Alayna Rakes, Makeup Artist
  • Yvette Ramirez, Arts Administrator, Cultural Maker
  • Johnny Ramos, Filmmaker
  • Alessandro Rampietti, reporter
  • Lorena Ramírez-López, Adjunct archivist
  • Chris Rand, Assistant Editor
  • Ari Rannveigarson, Sound Mix, Camera op
  • Nick Rapaz, Photographer
  • Sasha Raskin-Yin, Program Director, AVODAH
  • Bob Ratynski, Graphic Artist
  • Ina Ray, Video Editor
  • Nick Rayment, Photographer/ IBEW1289 Union Member
  • scøtt reber, composer/musician/artist
  • Van Redin, Photographer
  • Thomas Rees, Photography Student
  • Shari Regenbogen, Development manager arts org/photographer for 40 yrs
  • Ivone Rego-Cass, Producer
  • David reibman, Video technician
  • Rikki Reich, Visual Artist
  • Chris Reichman, Photographer
  • Bernard Reily, Photographer
  • Heidi Reinberg, Producer
  • Barbara Reiner, photographer
  • Mollie Relihan, New Media Technician
  • Chris Renton, photographer
  • Reverend Billy and The Stop Shopping Choir, Music & Media Activists
  • Mark Reyes, Freelance VFX
  • Caleb Reynolds, Filmmaker
  • Matt Reynolds, Editor
  • Sydney Reynolds, Teacher
  • Joan Riccardi, Artist
  • Diriki Rice, TV Broadcast Consultant
  • Twain Richardson, Editor
  • Helene Riedel, Former Photo Editor
  • Peter Riesett, Photographer
  • Blithe Riley, Artist, Organizer
  • Mario A Riojas, Photographer
  • Jerry Risius, filmmaker
  • Cristina Rivera, Photography
  • Roberta, visual artist
  • Cecilia Roberts, Artist
  • Jeremy R. Roberts, Filmmaker/Photographer
  • Zach D Roberts, Photo-Journalist
  • Vergentino Robles, Photographer
  • Halsey Rodman, Artist/Teacher
  • Eduardo Rodriguez, Retoucher
  • Lani Rodriguez, Student
  • Shirley Rodriguez, photographer/filmmaking educator
  • Luis Rodríguez, Photojournalist
  • Brian Rosa, Assistant Professor, Queens College CUNY
  • Scott Rosann, Editor
  • ben rosenberg, freelance fabrication
  • Maida Rosenstein, President, Local 2110 UAW
  • Robin Rosenthal, Artist/Documentary Filmmaker
  • Jonathan Roskos, Photographer
  • Jean Ross, Photographer
  • Peter Rostovsky, artist/educator
  • Shlomo Roth, Educator / Photography
  • Lewis Rothenberg, Digital Imaging Technician
  • Jeffrey Dunn Rovinelli, Filmmaker
  • Steve Rowell, Artist, filmmaker
  • William Rowland, Photographer/paramedic
  • Greg Ruffing, artist
  • Rob Rusli, musician/filmmaker
  • Tara Ruth, Artist
  • Janelle Ryan, Storyteller
  • Chano del Río, Graphic Designer
  • Baltazar Peña Ríos, film
  • Lynne Sachs, Filmmaker
  • Gus Sacks, Film Professional
  • Sam Sage, Stagehand
  • Memo Salazar, Filmmaker, Artist
  • Liz Sales, Photo-based artist and educator
  • David Sampliner, documentary filmmaker and cinematographer
  • Keith Sanborn, media artist and educator
  • Heriberto Sanchez, Photographer
  • Jorge I. Sanchez, Actor
  • Alex Sandberg, Videographer
  • Brenda Sandburg, journalist
  • Andras Sandor, Photographer
  • cinthya santos, student
  • Raúl Santos, filmmaker
  • Steven Santos, TV Editor
  • Terrence Santos, Filmmaker
  • Oren Sarch, Editor, Director, Writer
  • Jeannette Sarpola, Photographer
  • Fernelly Sarria, Musician
  • Patricia Sausen, Safe working conditions with fair pay for all
  • Jeremy Schaller, Live Cinema
  • Asha Schechter, Artist
  • Ursula Scherrer, artist
  • Joel Schlemowitz, Professor / Filmmaker
  • Ken Schles, Photographer
  • DQ Schloss, professional photographer
  • Dan Schmahl, Artist/Photographer
  • Dana Schmerzler, Photographer
  • Kylie Schmitt, Photographer
  • Aaron Schoenfeld, Service Industry
  • Mira Schor, Artist/Teacher
  • Rachel Schragis, Artist
  • Kevin Schreck, filmmaker
  • Jason Schulman, Co-Editor, New Politics
  • Daniel Schweimler, Al Jazeera correspondent
  • Eric Schwortz, Photographer
  • Maurice Schönen, Photographer
  • Christopher Scollard, VFX Supervisor/Cinematographer
  • Lizzie Scott, Artist/Teacher
  • Mark L Scott, art director, video games
  • Marco Scozzaro, Photographer/Artist
  • Daniel Scuerino, Photographer
  • Sarah Secunda, filmmaker
  • Lori E. Seid, Producer/Photographer
  • Adam Sekuler, Filmmaker/Film instructor
  • Marina Fragoso Senra, photographer
  • James Senzer, Photographer / Fine Art Printer
  • Zara Serabian-Arthur, Filmmaker
  • Tim Serrano, Photographer
  • Daniel Serrette, Photographer
  • Ian Timothy Servin, Director of Photography
  • Jim de Seve, Filmmaker in Residence, Union College
  • Stephen Sewell, Artist/Professor
  • Don Shafer, Photographer
  • Paul Shambroom, photographer/educator
  • Bill Shannon, Interdisciplinary Artist
  • Ben Shapiro, Filmmaker/Radio
  • Keith Shapiro, Associate Professor of Art
  • Annie Shaw, Art Worker / Organizer
  • Elizabeth Shelton, costume Designer
  • janice shelton, retired USW/ local 9443-01/ SOAR president
  • Jenny Graf Sheppard, Artist/Educator
  • Dustina Sherbine, Artist/Teacher
  • Meerenai Shim, Musician
  • CK Shine, Media Designer
  • Bradd Shore, Professor, photographer
  • David Shorter, Professor/Writer
  • The Staff of The Laura Flanders Show
  • Ken Shung, Photographer
  • Jimmy Siegel, photographer
  • Gina Sierra, Photographer
  • Irma Sierra, Producer
  • Arnar Sigurdsson, Filmmaker
  • shelly silver, filmmaker and educator, Columbia Unversity School of Arts
  • Alexandra Silverthorne, photographer / professor
  • Richard D Silvius, Animator / Photographer
  • Shabd simon-alexander, designer
  • Jay Simpson, educator, photographer
  • Andrew Sisson, Photographer/Artist
  • Edward Smakov, Student filmmaker
  • Mimi Smith, artist
  • Sarah Smith, assistant professor of photography and video
  • William Smith, Videography
  • James Snelling, Photography
  • Anna Snyder, Artist
  • Jared Soares, Photographer
  • Frisly Soberanis, Video Content Producer
  • Shawn Sobers, Photographer / Educator
  • Annie Soga, Photographer, writer, illustrator
  • Irene Soloway, Amateur Photograpgher
  • janet solval, photographer/artist
  • Shelly Sometimes, Photographer
  • Scott Sommerdorf, Photographer, Salt Lake Tribune
  • Forrest Soper, Photographer
  • Jillian Soto, artist
  • Vern Southard, Photpgrapher
  • Robert Spencer, media director
  • Tija Spitsberg, Retired lecturer (journalism and film studies)
  • Sebastian Spitz, Student
  • Pam Sporn, Documentary Filmmaker/Media Professor
  • Estelle Srivijittakar, Photographer
  • Christopher Stackhouse, Writer/Artist/Adjunct Professor
  • Martyna Starosta, Independent Filmmaker
  • Martyna Starosta, Video Journalist
  • Tommy José Stathes, Film Archivist
  • Jessie Stead, artist
  • Laura Steele, Educator, Photographer, Studio Manager
  • Laura Stein, Artist multi- disciplinary
  • Samuel Stein, Student
  • Sonia Stein, Photographer
  • A.L. Steiner
  • Jonathan Steiner, Audio/Video Engineer / Musician
  • Ethan Steinman, Filmmaker
  • Andrew Steinmetz, artist
  • Heather Sten, Photographer
  • Maya Stern, Printmaker
  • Rachel Stern, Photographer and Artist
  • Amanda Stevens, Photographer
  • Wayne Stevenson, Video Editor
  • Hugh Stickney, Photographer
  • Ann-Marie Stillion, photographer/designer/artist
  • Hunter Stone, Student
  • Inuuteq Storch, Photography Student
  • Steven Storm, Professional Photographer
  • Tim Story, Former Combat Photographer
  • Alex Strada, Artist / graduate student
  • Kevin Strandberg, College photography professor
  • David Levi Strauss, Writer/Teacher
  • Ellen Streger, photographer
  • Tara Strickler, Artist
  • Barry Strongin, Filmmaker
  • Kimberly Stuart, motion picture grip IATSE
  • Snorri Sturluson, Photographer
  • Sehar Sufi, Photographer/educator
  • Woody Sullender, Professor/Artist
  • Mike Sullo, Producer
  • Jim Supanick, Artist/Writer/Archivist
  • David Felix Sutcliffe, filmmaker
  • Matt Suter, DIT / Cinematographer
  • Angel Sutjipto, photographer
  • Madelyn Sutton, Program Assistant, Film Program, Columbia Unversity School of Arts
  • Danniel Swatosh, oqner heartbeetjuicery
  • Ray Sweeten, Artist
  • William Syde, Professor
  • Diane Sylvester, Producer,Director
  • Dedunu Sylvia, art / organizing / education
  • JT Takagi, Filmmaker
  • lena takamori, artist
  • Alex Takats, Filmmaker
  • Shashwati Talukdar, Filmmaker
  • Shashwati Talukdar, Filmmaker
  • Chen Tamir, Curator
  • Chris Tamma, Media Services
  • Ayumi Tanaka, Photographer
  • Nima Taradji, Photographer
  • erika tasini, director
  • Corey Tatarczuk, film/video/artist
  • Tim tate, Musician
  • Brittany Taylor, Musician
  • Fred Barney Taylor, Filmmaker
  • Grace Taylor, Photographer
  • Mark Teboe, Cameraman
  • Mariane Tec, Photographer
  • Jerry Telfer, Photographer
  • margery Teplitz, theater
  • lizz thabet, artist
  • Ashley Thayer, photographer
  • Liz Thomas, Writer/Activist
  • Ronni Thomas, Fimmaker
  • Ryan Thomas, Local 728 Set lighting technician
  • Dolie Thompson, Professor
  • Kirk Thompson, Retired professor; director, summer photography institutes
  • liz thompson, artist
  • Tom Thomson, Freelance Photographer
  • Nils Tikkanen, Photographer and customer
  • andrew tilson, Executive Director - Workers Unite Film Festival, NYC
  • Natalie Ruiz Tofano, documentary filmmaker
  • Bruce Toombs, Photographer and Teacher
  • Ólafur Páll Torfason, Producer
  • DIANE TORR, ARTIST/LECTURER
  • Daniel Torres, film/architecture
  • Ivan Torres, cameraman
  • Roberto Torres, Robert Studio, fotografía professional
  • Kat Touschner, editor, filmmaker
  • Amelia Tovey, Producer
  • Terry towery, Professor. Artist. Photographer
  • Laura Trager, Filmmaker
  • Eduardo Trejo, Cinematographer
  • Lili Trenkova, Environmental Designer
  • Milton X. Trujillo, Filmmaker
  • L Claire Truman, Television Professional
  • Tran Truong, Artist
  • Aidan Tumas, Producer
  • Charles Turner, composer
  • Gayle Turner, Producer
  • Trevor Tweeten, Cinematographer
  • Stacey Tyrell, Artist
  • Daniel Ucko, Editor
  • Max Uhlenbeck, Development Director, Global Action Project
  • Greg Ulrich, IATSE local 600 Camera Assistant
  • Gordon undy, Photographer
  • Gordon undy, Photographer
  • Eliyahu Ungar-Sargon, Independent Filmmaker
  • Livia Ungur, Artist
  • Santiago Vanegas, Photographer
  • Max VanHorn, Documentary Filmmaker, Video Editor
  • Adriana Varella, videoartist
  • Nikolaos Vargelis, Visual Artist
  • Michelle Vaughan, Visual Artist
  • Elizabeth Vazquez, Filmmaker
  • Lauren Velasquez, merchandiser
  • Sergio R Velazquez, photographer
  • jessica velcoff, filmmaker
  • Leonardo Velázquez, Musician
  • Fernando Venegas, Filmmaker
  • Richard Verlaque, photographer
  • Amit Verma, Photographer
  • Thorir Vidar, Photographer
  • Jesus Villalba, Media Educator / Film Maker
  • Vladimir Vince, Photographer
  • Kelly Viselman, Photographer
  • Candace Vivian, Photographer
  • Art Vizthum, Television Producer Editor
  • Bob Vogel, photographer
  • Judith Vogelsang, filmmaker
  • Sally Volkmann, Artist/Editor
  • James Vos, Video producer
  • Pierre Wachholder, photographer
  • Lacy Wagen, Social Documentary Graduate Student at School of Visual Arts
  • Jennifer Wager, Filmmaker
  • Mark Wagner, photographer
  • William Walker, photographer
  • Sam Wallander, Fashion Photographer
  • Ellen Wallenstein, Artist, Photography professor
  • Jeremy Walrer, Film Maker and Photographer
  • Peter Walsh, Artist
  • Anna Waltman, doctoral student
  • Rosie Walunas, Editor
  • Jersey Walz, Photographer
  • Kevin Walz, Designer/Artist
  • graham walzer, photographer
  • Josh Wand, Photographer
  • Sakira Wang, Production Manager
  • Vanessa Warheit, Documentary Filmmaker
  • oliver wasow, photographer
  • Anthony Weeks, Artist, Writer, Storyteller
  • Brent Weichsel, Local 600 member
  • Saralena Weinfield, Filmmaker
  • Rachel Weinstein, Editor
  • Dan Weissman, Filmmaker
  • Christopher Welling, Stage Technician
  • Della Wells, Artist
  • Patrick J. Welsh, Academic, teacher, journal editor
  • Randy west, Photographer
  • Stephen Westfall, Artist/Professor
  • Amy Westpfahl, artist
  • Randall White, Photographer - IATSE 600
  • Tom White, Photographer/Educator
  • James Douglas Whitman, Artist/Art Handler
  • Beth Whitney, Artist
  • Anna Wilborn, Audio engineer/photographer hobbyist
  • Jack Wilgus, Retired Teacher
  • Travis Wilkerson, Filmmaker
  • Ken Wilkinson, Production sound mixer
  • Chris Williams, Photographer
  • Emmett Williams, Documentary Film Producer
  • Michael Williams, Photographer
  • Paul williams, Professional photographer
  • Shaun Williams, Video Editor
  • Tracie Williams, Photographer
  • Suzanne Williamson, Director, private photography foundation, photographer
  • Chris Willmore, DP/Operator
  • Sheri Wills, artist/educator
  • Holly Wilson, Librarian
  • Timothy Wilson, Film prep technician
  • Donna Wingate, Editor/Publisher (Artist and Publisher Services)
  • Sarah Winningham, Photographer
  • Edward Winter, Freelance Photographer
  • Andrea Wise, Photo Editor
  • Evan Wise, Television Editor
  • WITNESS
  • Erica Wold, Portrait Photographer
  • Shannon Wolfe, Producer
  • Jerry Wong, Photographer
  • Victoria Wong, Photographer, Non-Profit Worker
  • Gabrielle Woodland, Journalist
  • Chavisa Woods, Writer
  • Jill Woodward, editor/filmmaker
  • Workers Art Coalition
  • Working Artists and the Greater Economy (W.A.G.E.)
  • Joshua Wright, Photographer
  • Milton Wright, Theatre
  • Nathan Wright, Corporate videographer
  • Gesche Wuerfel, Artist and Educatro
  • Veronica Wulff, producer
  • Peter Wunstorf, DP
  • Ron Wurzer, Photographer
  • Robert Wylie, Software Engineer
  • Brian Yankou, Gaffer/ Electrician
  • Joshua Yates, Photojournalist
  • Tat Ho Yee, Editor
  • Samuel Yerraguntla, Documentary Filmmaker
  • Angela Yonke, Art Teacher, Photo Instructor
  • Eric Young, Jib operator
  • Ethan Young, Filmmaker
  • Neil A Young, Artist / Media Services Manager
  • Barry Yourgrau, Writer
  • Natalia Yovane, artist
  • Betty Yu, Multi-media Artist, Teaching Artist, Adjunct Professor
  • Inaya Graciana Yusuf, Documentarian
  • Atiq Zabinski, Videographer
  • Andre Zachery, Artist
  • Jennifer Zackin, Artist
  • Tamara Zahaykevich, Artist
  • Suzanna Zak, artist
  • Fareed Zamaria, Journalist
  • Fulvia Zambon, Fine Art Painter
  • Joe Zarba, retired photo teacher MS51Brooklyn
  • Ryan Zarra, Executive Producer / Momentum
  • Angel Zayas, Photojournalist
  • Anna ZIvarts, Cameraman
  • Sean Zloch, Photographer/Photo Retoucher
  • Jeff Zoline, photographer
  • Jeff Zoline, Urban Photographer
  • Or Zubalsky, Artist
  • Kaitlyn Zuverink, Photographer

Recent Signers


  • belen anderson, Lead Admitting/Hosp Worker/Helping others
  • Don Furko, Steelworker, Journal Agent USW Local 1557
  • Robert Bingham, Engineer
  • ur name
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photo bh bh photo bhphoto bhphotovideo bandh bhphoto video b&h b&h photo b&h photo video b & h b & h photo b and h b and h photo b h photo bh bh photo bhphoto bhphotovideo bandh bhphoto video b&h b&h photo b&h photo video b & h b & h photo b and h b and h photo b h photo bh bh photo bhphoto bhphotovideo bandh bhphoto video b&h b&h photo b&h photo video b & h b & h photo b and h b and h photo b h photo bh bh photo bhphoto bhphotovideo bandh bhphoto video b&h b&h photo b&h photo video b & h b & h photo b and h b and h photo b h photo bh bh photo bhphoto bhphotovideo bandh bhphoto video b&h b&h photo b&h photo video b & h b & h photo b and h b and h photo, Marketing
  • Michel Baumgardt, Photojournalist
  • http://nypost.com/2014/12/09/a-lease-now-in-play-on-broadway/ URL [url=http://nypost.com/2014/12/09/a-lease-now-in-play-on-broadway/]URL[/url] [URL](http://nypost.com/2014/12/09/a-lease-now-in-play-on-broadway/) http://bit.ly/1Bu0EGi, http://nypost.com/2014/12/09/a-lease-now-in-play-on-broadway/ URL [url=http://nypost.com/2014/12/09/a-lease-now-in-play-on-broadway/]URL[/url] [URL](http://nypost.com/2014/12/09/a-lease-now-in-play-on-broadway/) http://bit.ly/1Bu0EGi
  • Donal Morgan, Videographer
  • ISO 11228-3:2007 - Ergonomics — Manual handling — Part 3: Handling of low loads at high frequency [http://www.cpzulia.org/ARCHIVOS_SSA/ISO_11228_3_Ingles.pdf] [http://ebookinga.com/pdf/international-iso-standard-11228-3-cpzuliaorg-1303156.html], Handling of low loads at high frequency (repetitive work) can cause pain and fatigue, which could lead to musculoskeletal disorders, reduced productivity, and deteriorated posture and movement co-ordination. The latter can increase the risk of errors and may result in reduced quality and hazardous situations. Good ergonomic design and proper organization of work are basic requirements for the avoidance of the adverse effects mentioned. Risk factors in repetitive work include the frequency of actions, exposure duration, postures and movement of body segments, forces associated with the work, work organization, job control, demands on work output (e.g. quality, task precision) and level of training/skill. Additional factors can include environmental factors, such as climate, noise, vibration and illumination. The recommendations provided by this part of ISO 11228 are based on available scientific evidence concerning the physiology and epidemiology of manual work. The knowledge is, however, limited, and the suggested guidelines are subject to change according to future research. Ergonomics — Manual handling — Part 3: Handling of low loads at high frequency 1 Scope This part of ISO 11228 establishes ergonomic recommendations for repetitive work tasks involving the manual handling of low loads at high frequency. It provides guidance on the identification and assessment of risk factors commonly associated with handling low loads at high frequency, thereby allowing evaluation of the related health risks to the working population. The recommendations apply to the adult working population and are intended to give reasonable protection for nearly all healthy adults. Those recommendations concerning health risks and control measures are mainly based on experimental studies regarding musculoskeletal loading, discomfort/pain and endurance/fatigue related to methods of working. For the evaluation of working postures, refer to ISO 11226. This part of ISO 11228 is intended to provide information for all those involved in the design or redesign of work, jobs and products. 2 Normative references The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. ISO 6385, Ergonomic principles in the design of work systems ISO 11226, Ergonomics — Evaluation of static working postures ISO 11228-1, Ergonomics — Manual handling — Part 1: Lifting and carrying ISO 11228-2, Ergonomics — Manual handling — Part 2: Pushing and pulling ISO 14738, Safety of machinery — Anthropometric requirements for the design of workstations at machinery ISO 15534 (all parts), Ergonomic design for the safety of machinery 3 Terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 6385, ISO 11228-1, ISO 11228-2, ISO 11226 and the following terms, definitions, symbols and abbreviated terms apply. NOTE In the definitions involving frequency, a unit of time is mentioned because more than one method is involved, each using a different unit, e.g. seconds in HAL (see Annex D), minutes in the OCRA Index (see Annex C) and Strain Index (see Annex D). 3.1 Terms and definitions 3.1.1 repetitive task task characterized by repeated work cycles 3.1.2 work cycle sequence of (technical) actions that are repeated always the same way 3.1.3 cycle time t C time, in seconds, elapsing from the moment when one operator begins a work cycle to the moment that the same work cycle is repeated 3.1.4 technical action elementary manual actions required to complete the operations within the cycle EXAMPLE Holding, turning, pushing or cutting. 3.1.5 repetitiveness characteristic of a task when a person is continuously repeating the same work cycle, technical actions and movements 3.1.6 frequency of actions number of technical actions per unit of time 3.1.7 force F physical effort of the operator required to execute the task 3.1.8 postures and movements positions and movements of body segment(s) or joint(s) required to execute the task 3.1.9 recovery time period of rest following a period of activity which allows restoration of musculoskeletal function (in minutes) 3.1.10 additional risk factor object and environmental factors for which there is evidence of causal or aggravating relationship with work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the upper limb 3.1.11 move transport of an object to a given destination using the upper limbs and without walking 3.1.12 reach shift the hand towards a prefixed destination 3.1.13 carry transport of an object to a given destination by walking 3.2 Symbols and abbreviated terms AM additional multiplier ATA actual technical action f frequency of actions per minute F force (N) FB basic force limit FL force limit FM force multiplier j generic repetitive tasks kf constant of frequency of technical actions per minute L actual load MODA PTS modular analysis predetermined time system MSD musculoskeletal disorders MTA motion time analysis MTM methods/time measurement MVC maximum voluntary contraction nATA overall number of actual technical actions within a shift nep number of exposed individuals npa number of persons affected by one or more UL-WMSD nRPA partial reference number of technical actions within a shift nrt number of repetitive task(s) performed during a shift nRTA overall number of reference technical actions within a shift nTC number of technical actions in a cycle OCRA occupational repetitive action PA prevalence (%) of persons affected PM posture multiplier PTS predetermined time system RTA reference technical action ReM repetitiveness multiplier RcM recovery multiplier SE standard error t net duration of each repetitive task, in minutes t C cycle time, in seconds TA technical action t M duration multiplier UL-WMSD upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders WF work factor 4 Recommendations 4.1 Avoiding repetitive handling tasks Hazardous manual handling tasks should be avoided wherever possible. This can be achieved through work enlargements, job rotation and/or mechanization/automation within the framework of a participative ergonomics approach. In the case of repetitive handling of low loads at high frequency, many tasks can be modified through the use of robotics or automated production systems. NOTE A “participative ergonomics approach” signifies the practical involvement of workers, supported by suitable communication, in planning and managing a significant amount of their work activities, with sufficient knowledge and ability to influence both processes and outcomes in order to achieve desirable goals. 4.2 Risk assessment 4.2.1 General When repetitive handling is unavoidable, a four-step approach in accordance with ISO Guide 51 and ISO 14121, and involving both risk assessment and risk reduction, should be adopted. The four steps are hazard identification, risk estimation, risk evaluation and risk reduction. The procedure shown in Figure 1 should be adopted when carrying out a risk assessment of jobs involving the manual handling of low loads at high frequency. 4.2.2 Hazard identification 4.2.2.1 General The first step of the risk assessment is to identify whether hazards exist which may expose individuals to a risk of injury. If such hazards are present, then a more detailed risk assessment can be necessary. When determining if one or more of the following hazards is present, consideration should be given to the guidelines for avoiding them. 4.2.2.2 Repetition Frequent repetitive movements give rise to a risk of injury that can vary depending on the context of the movement pattern and the individual. As the movement cycle increases and/or the cycle time decreases, the risk of injury increases. Repetitive movements should be avoided within a task or job. 4.2.2.3 Posture and movement Sitting restricts overall movement of the body, particularly those of the lower leg and back. This may lead to increased and complex loading of the back and upper extremities. Standing for prolonged periods of time often results in pain/discomfort in the legs and lower back and can lead to venous pooling in the legs. Complex postures involving combined movements (e.g. flexed and twisted) can present greater risk (see ISO 11226). Whenever possible, workers should be given the option to vary between sitting and standing. Work tasks and operations should provide variations to the working posture: both whole-body postures and movement of specific limbs. In the work tasks, extreme ranges of joint movement should be avoided; there is also need to avoid prolonged static postures. 4.2.2.4 Force Forceful exertions can be harmful. Tasks should involve smooth force exertions, with the avoidance of sudden or jerky movements. Handling precision (accurate picking and placement), and the type and nature of the grip can introduce additional muscular activation. 4.2.2.5 Duration and insufficient recovery Insufficient time for the body to recover between repetitive movements (i.e. lack of recovery time) increases the risk of injury. Duration can be broken down into different levels, i.e. work shift duration, job duration, task duration. The opportunity for recovery or rest may fall within each of these work periods. 4.2.2.6 Object characteristics Inappropriately designed objects could have characteristics that can cause harm (e.g. contact forces, shape, dimensions, coupling, object temperature). Inappropriately placed handholds may lead to awkward hand/arm postures. Non-cushioned handholds and objects constructed of a smooth material increase the difficulty of grasping the object and increase force requirements. The size and shape of the object being handled and the coupling between it and the operator’s hands will determine the grip type and the force that the operator must exert. 4.2.2.7 Vibration and impact forces Exposure to hand/arm vibration, shocks or impacts can lead to a desensitizing of the hand and increase the force necessary for gripping an object or tool. Prolonged exposure to these types of risk factors has also been linked to vascular and neurological disorders of the upper limbs. 4.2.2.8 Environmental conditions (lighting, climate, noise, etc.) Inappropriate lighting, hot and cold environments and high levels of noise can impose additional hazards. Wet or contaminated surfaces are likely to inhibit the ability to exert forces and increase the risk of injury. The designer of products shall consider environmental conditions only within the limits of the foreseeable use of the product. 4.2.2.9 Work organization Work organization (e.g. task duration, job duration, recovery time, shift patterns) has an important part to play in the exposure to musculoskeletal risk factors. This should be structured to facilitate rest periods and avoid the use of similar muscle groups over the duration of the work shift. Job rotation, job diversification and job enlargement are all methods of structuring the work to facilitate variation and recovery within the work period. 4.2.2.10 Psychosocial factors (e.g. job complexity, job demands, job content) Psychological response to work and workplace conditions has an important influence on general health and, in particular, musculoskeletal health. These factors include the design, organization and management of work, the specific impact of workplace risk factors, such as work content, and the overall social environment (i.e. the context of work). Many of the effects of these psychosocial factors occur via stress-related processes, which can have a direct effect on biochemical and physiological responses. 4.2.2.11 Individuals Individual skills, training, age, gender, health problems and pregnancy are personal characteristics that can influence performance and should be considered in the risk assessment. Skill and experience are likely to benefit the individual when performing the task and reduce the risk of injury. Training can increase the level of skill. Important aspects of work design include the amount of control an individual has over his/her work, the level of work demands, the variety of tasks he/she is required to perform and the level of support provided by managers, supervisors and/or co-workers. Undesirable psychosocial aspects of a job contributing to a risk of musculoskeletal disorders include the following: ⎯ workers have little or no control over their work and work methods or organization; ⎯ tasks require high levels of attention and concentration; ⎯ workers are unable to make full use of their skills; ⎯ workers have little or no involvement in decision making; ⎯ workers are expected to carry out repetitive, monotonous tasks exclusively; ⎯ work is machine- or system-paced; ⎯ work demands are perceived as excessive; ⎯ payment systems encourage working too quickly or without breaks; ⎯ work systems limit opportunities for social interaction; ⎯ high levels of effort are not balanced by sufficient reward (resources, remuneration, self-esteem, status, etc.). 4.2.3 Risk estimation 4.2.3.1 Method 1 — Simple risk assessment Risk estimation is performed by a simple risk assessment of jobs composed by a single repetitive task (monotask jobs). The procedure and checklist model presented in Annex B is preferred for the carrying out of the simple risk assessment. There are four parts to this assessment procedure: ⎯ preliminary information describing the job task; ⎯ hazard identification and risk estimation procedure and checklist; ⎯ overall evaluation of the risk; ⎯ remedial action to be taken. NOTE As a second choice, other simple methods and checklists given in Annex A can be used, taking into consideration the specific characteristics of the repetitive task under examination. Risk estimation using Method 1 should allow the classification of the risk by the three-zone approach (green, yellow and red) and determine the consequent action to be taken. The three risk zones are defined as follows. a) Green zone (acceptable risk) The risk of disease or injury is negligible or is at an acceptably low level for the entire working population. No action is required. b) Yellow zone (conditionally acceptable risk) There is a risk of disease or injury that cannot be neglected for the entire working population or part of it. The risk shall be further estimated (using the more detailed assessment of Method 2), analysed together with contributory risk factors and followed as soon as possible by redesign. Where redesign is not possible, other measures to control the risk shall be taken. c) Red zone (not acceptable) There is a considerable risk of disease or injury that cannot be neglected for the operator population. Immediate action to reduce the risk (e.g. redesign, work organization, worker instruction and training) is necessary (see 4.3 and Annex E). 4.2.3.2 Method 2 — Detailed risk assessment 4.2.3.2.1 General criteria If the risk estimated using Method 1 is considered to be YELLOW or RED, or if the job is composed of two or more repetitive tasks (multitask job), the performing of a more detailed risk assessment is recommended. This will also allow a better determination of the remedial measures to be taken. For detailed risk assessment, OCRA (occupational repetitive action) is the preferred method (see 4.2.3.2.2). It is recommended for the specific purposes of this part of ISO 11228 because, given the knowledge at the time of publication, it considers all the relevant risk factors, is also applicable to “multitask jobs”, and provides criteria — based on extensive epidemiological data — for forecasting the occurrence of UL-WMSD (upper limb work-related musculoskeletal disorders) in exposed working populations. Other detailed risk assessment methods are available which can be used for a detailed risk assessment, depending on the kind of risk factors identified by Method 1, the nature of the job and the experience of the analyst. Annex D gives basic information about other detailed risk assessment methods useful for the purposes of this part of ISO 11228, together with some remarks about their applicative limits at the time of publication. Whichever method is used for detailed risk assessment, it should allow the classification of the risk by the three-zone model and determine the consequences to be acted upon in accordance with Table 1. 4.2.3.2.2 OCRA method for detailed risk assessment The OCRA index is the ratio between the number of actual technical actions, ATA, carried out during a work shift and the number of reference technical actions, RTA, for each upper limb, specifically determined in the scenario under examination [11], [38]. The OCRA risk assessment procedure consists of three basic steps: a) Step 1 Calculate the frequency of technical actions/min and the overall number of ATA carried out in the shift (by each upper limb). b) Step 2 Calculate the overall number of RTA. c) Step 3 Calculate the OCRA index and perform a risk evaluation. Table 2 (ATA and RTA calculation in monotask jobs), Table 3 (ATA and RTA calculation in multitask jobs) and Table 4 (OCRA index calculation and risk evaluation) give an overview of the procedure detailed in Annex C. 4.3 Risk reduction A proper risk assessment is the basis for appropriate choices in risk reduction. Risk reduction can be achieved by combining, in different ways, improvements in different risk factors and should consider, among other things ⎯ the avoidance and limitation of repetitive handling, especially for long daily durations without proper recovery periods or at high frequencies, ⎯ proper design of the task, workplaces and work organization, also using existing International Standards and introducing adequate task variation, ⎯ proper design of the objects, tools and materials handled, ⎯ proper design of the work environment, ⎯ individual workers’ capacities and level of skill for the specific task. See Annex E for more detailed information about risk reduction options. Annex A (informative) Risk assessment — General framework and information on available methods A.1 General framework The Consensus Document listed under Reference [10], which was prepared and published by the IEA1) Technical Committee, Musculoskeletal Disorders, with the endorsement of ICOH, defines in a general model the main risk factors to be considered and presents observational procedures that can be used in their description, classification and evaluation. In its conclusions, the document underlines the need for an integrated evaluation by means of concise exposure indices. The general model of description and assessment of tasks, concerning all exposed workers in a given situation, is aimed at analysing four main risk factors: repetitiveness, force, awkward postures and movements, and lack of proper recovery periods. Such factors should be assessed as functions of time (mainly considering their respective durations). In addition to these factors, others, grouped under the term “additional risk factors”, should be considered; these are mechanical factors (e.g. vibrations, localized mechanical compressions), environmental factors (e.g. exposure to cold) and organizational factors (e.g. pace determined by machinery), and for most of them there is evidence of association with UL-WMSD. Each identified risk factor should be properly described and classified. This allows, on the one hand, identification of possible requirements and preliminary preventive interventions for each factor and, on the other hand, eventually, the consideration of all the factors contributing to the overall “exposure” within a general and mutually integrated framework. From this viewpoint “numerical” or “categorical” classifications of results may be useful to make management of results easier, even if it is important to avoid the feeling of an excessive objectiveness of methods whose classification criteria can still be empirical. In adopting Reference [10], it should be emphasized that the OCRA method (and the OCRA index) [11], [38] represents an endeavour to organize the data obtained from the descriptive analysis of the various mechanical risk factors, as they are collected following indications contained in the Consensus Document itself. The main advantages of the OCRA method are the following: ⎯ it provides a detailed analysis of all the main mechanical and organizational risk factors for UL-WMSD; ⎯ it uses a common language with respect to traditional methods of task analysis (predetermined time systems): this makes company technicians (production engineers, analysts) more familiar with the method and helps them to improve work procedures; ⎯ it considers all the repetitive tasks involved in a complex (or rotating) job and estimates the overall worker’s risk level; ⎯ in many epidemiological surveys it has shown itself to be well related with health effects (such as the occurrence of UL-WMSD); therefore, it is a good predictor (within definite limits) of the risk at a given OCRA level. As for the OCRA method’s disadvantages, it should be underlined that it can be time consuming, especially for complex tasks and multitask jobs, and does not consider all psychosocial factors related to the individual sphere. These considerations were the basis for the choice of the OCRA method in Annex C as the reference method for detailed risk assessment. However, other methods are proposed in the literature for a detailed risk assessment; in the following paragraphs the main of those methods will be briefly presented, also taking into account their potential limits in respect to the general model here considered. A.2 Review of other methods of risk assessment Several other methods/procedures for the risk assessment of repetitive movements and efforts of the upper limbs which also provide synthetic exposure scores are already available in the literature. A non-exhaustive list is given in Table A.1 (adapted from Reference [32]). Most of them are simple (and often empiric) screening tools, not tailored for a detailed risk assessment: they could be used at an entry level (step 1) as an alternative to the recommended Method 1 presented in 4.2.3.1 and Annex B). Other methods, such as OWAS and, in part, RULA, are primarily devoted to the study of working postures and give less consideration to the other main risk factors involved in repetitive handling at high frequency. A special mention should be given to the tool OREGE [21], a movement identification and evaluation aid whose purpose is to quantify biomechanical stresses represented by forces, constraining postures and movement repetitiveness. Developed by France’s Institut National de Recherche et de Sécurité (INRS), it has not been included in Table A.1 because, as proposed by INRS, it cannot stand alone and can be used only in the context of a more general and specified approach to UL-WMSD prevention. The application of the tool requires a specific ergonomic ability because it is mainly based on observation of the operator, his/her perception of constraints and on dialogue between the expert and the operator, and final assessment is based largely on expert knowledge and experience. OREGE uses other tools (i.e. visuoanalogic scales for the estimation of frequency and force, RULA for the estimation of postures) in a combined way. Notwithstanding this “mixed” approach, which makes it unsuitable for the specific scope of application of this part of ISO 11228, OREGE represents an interesting and participatory method for the prevention of UL-WMSD at the field level, justifying its mention in this short review. Of the methods included in Table A.1, only a few allow for a detailed risk assessment in some way corresponding to the general model [10]. In addition to the OCRA index, these are, substantially, the Strain Index and the HAL/ACGIH TLV (for monotask handwork), which methods are also briefly presented in Annex D along with data presented in Reference [9]. Annex B (informative) Method 1 — Simple risk assessment checklist B.1 General This annex provides checklists and the evaluation model for the simple risk assessment of Method 1 (see 4.2.3.1). The structure and content of the checklist is as follows. ⎯ Preliminary information describing the job task B.2.1 consists of general information (job description, tasks to be evaluated, etc.). Initial consideration should also be given to the prevalence of work-related health complaints and/or work changes (planned or improvised) made to the work equipment or tools. ⎯ Hazard identification, risk estimation procedure and checklist B.2.2 presents a procedure that adopts a five-step approach, taking account of the four primary physical risk factors (repetition, high force, awkward posture and movements, insufficient recovery), as well as any other additional risk factors which may be present. When hazards are identified, steps should be taken to reduce or eliminate these hazards from the task/job (see Annex E). The characteristics of the work cycle are the primary risk factors for a job. Step 1 of the assessment is therefore the base of the risk estimation. The other risk factors that are relevant for the risk assessment are awkward or uncomfortable postures (step 2), use of force by upper limbs (step 3), lack of recovery periods (step 4) and additional risk factors (step 5). ⎯ Overall evaluation of the risk B.2.3 describes the method for the overall risk assessment and the actions to be taken in consequence. If one of the risk factors is found to be in the red zone, then the overall risk is RED; if none of the risk levels are RED, but one or more is in the yellow zone then the overall risk is YELLOW; if all risk levels are in the green zone then the overall risk level is GREEN. For additional factors, the level of risk decreases as one moves towards the green zone. In making an overall assessment, additional factors should always be taken into consideration. See 4.2.3.1 for an explanation of the risk zones and consequential action. ⎯ Remedial action to be taken See B.2.4 for the remedial action that should be formulated and carried out. B.2 Checklist B.2.1 Preliminary information B.2.2 Hazard identification and risk evaluation This part of the checklist is used for a specific risk evaluation if the work is repetitive. The risk should always be further analysed if the work involves nearly identical movements that are frequently repeated for a significant period of the normal workday. If the duration of the repetitive work is for less than 1 h/day or 5 h/week, the risk caused by repetition is considered negligible. In that case, no further risk evaluation of the repetitiveness is needed. Complete Table B.2. B.2.3 Assessment of overall risk level B.2.3.1 Red evaluation If one of the risk levels examined in B.2.2 was found to be in the red zone, then the overall risk is RED. If the job falls within this zone, then the work is judged to be harmful. The severity of risk is increased if one or more of the additional risk factors also falls within the red zone. It is recommended that measures be taken to eliminate or reduce the risk factors or that a more detailed risk assessment be performed using Method 2 (see Annex C). B.2.3.2 Yellow evaluation If none of the risk levels examined in B.2.2 was found to be RED, but one or more were YELLOW, then the job is judged to be within the yellow zone. If one severe or two additional factors (step 5) are present, the overall risk level shifts from YELLOW to RED. In case of a yellow evaluation, a more detailed risk assessment is needed, using Method 2 (see Annex C), or else remedial action should be taken to reduce the risk to the green level. B.2.3.3 Green evaluation If all risks are GREEN then the overall risk level is acceptable. If the job falls within the green zone, the risk of developing work-related musculoskeletal disorders is most likely considered to be acceptable. However, if additional risk factors are present (step 5), it is recommended that an attempt be made to reduce or eliminate these risks. B.2.4 Remedial action to be taken Complete Table B.3. Annex C (informative) Method 2 — OCRA method for detailed risk assessment C.1 General This annex gives all the relevant information for applying the OCRA (occupational repetitive action) method in accordance with this part of ISO 11228. C.2 to C.5 describe in detail, step by step, how the OCRA index is determined; C.6 provides the means for determining technical actions for step 1; C.7, C.8 and C.9 explain, respectively, how to determine force levels, analyse postures and movements and identify and evaluate the different factors and force multipliers applied in step 2; C.10 gives information about the criteria adopted for OCRA Index classification (step 3) as well as on forecast models of the expected percentage of persons affected (PA) by one or more UL-WMSD; while C.11 provides applicative examples of the use of the OCRA method for assessing repetitive tasks. C.2 OCRA Index The OCRA Index is the ratio between the number of actual technical actions (ATA) carried out during a work shift and the number of reference technical actions (RTA), for each upper limb, specifically determined in the scenario under examination [11], [38]: ATA RTA OCRA Index n n = (C.1) where nATA is the overall number of ATA in the shift; nRTA is the number of RTA in the shift. The three-step procedure for determining the index is detailed in C.3 to C.5 (see also 4.2.3.2.2). C.3 Step 1 Calculate the frequency of technical actions (TA) per minute and the overall number of ATA carried out in the shift by each upper limb (see also Table 2). a) Count the number of technical actions (nTC) in a representative cycle of each repetitive task in the job. See C.6 for details on how to determine the technical actions. b) Evaluate their frequency, f, per minute, considering the cycle time, t C, in seconds: C TC 60 f n t = × (C.2) c) Evaluate the net duration, t, of the repetitive task in the shift, in minutes. d) Calculate the overall number of ATA carried out in the shift: nATA = f × t (C.3) For a multitask analysis, follow the procedure shown in Figure C.1 (see also Table 3). a) Count the number of technical actions in a cycle, nTC, for each repetitive task. b) Evaluate the frequency of action, f, per minute for each of the repetitive tasks considering the cycle time, t C, in seconds for each of the tasks. c) Evaluate the net duration, t, of each of the repetitive tasks in the shift, in minutes. d) Calculate the overall number of ATA carried out in each of the repetitive tasks, then, by summing them, the overall number of ATA in the shift. n f ATA = × ∑( j j t ) C.4 Step 2 C.4.1 General formula Use the following formula to calculate the overall number of RTA within a shift (the OCRA method considers a number of risk factors and corresponding multipliers): RTA f M M eM M cM M ( ) ( ) 1 n j j j jj j n kF P R A t R t = = ⎡ ⎤ × × × ×× × ∑⎣ ⎦ (C.5) where n is the number of repetitive tasks performed during a shift; j is the generic repetitive task; kf is the constant of frequency of technical actions per minute (= 30); FM frequent or high force exertions (force multiplier) in each repetitive task, j; PM awkward or uncomfortable postures or movements (posture multiplier) in each repetitive task, j; ReM high repetition of the same movements (repetitiveness multiplier) in each repetitive task, j; AM presence of additional factors (additional multiplier) in each repetitive task, j; t is the net duration, in minutes, of each repetitive task, j; RcM is the multiplier for the risk factor lack of recovery period (recovery multiplier); t M is the multiplier according to the overall duration of all repetitive tasks during a shift (duration multiplier). The determination of these multipliers is given in C.4.2 to C.4.7. C.4.2 Determining RTA In practice, use the following procedure to determine the overall number of reference technical actions, nRTA, within a shift. a) For each repetitive task, start from kf (30 actions/min). b) For each task, weight the frequency constant, kf , using the respective multipliers and considering the presence and degree of the risk factors force, FM, posture, PM, repetitiveness, ReM, and additional, AM. c) Multiply the weighted frequency thus obtained, for each task, by the number of minutes of the real duration, t, of each repetitive task. d) Sum up the values obtained for the different tasks. e) Multiply the resulting value by the multiplier factor for recovery periods, RcM. f) Apply the last multiplier factor that considers the total time spent in repetitive tasks during the whole shift, t M. g) The value thus obtained represents the total number of RTA in the shift for the examined job (made up of one or more repetitive tasks), nRTA. C.4.3 Determining force multiplier, FM Step 2 is considered here in more detail. Determine the force multiplier, FM, which will be equal to 1 if the following “optimal” conditions (see EN 1005-3) are met: ⎯ the isometric force does not exceed 50 % of the values proposed for 15th force percentile for professional use in the healthy adult European population; ⎯ actions do not imply fast movements; ⎯ the frequency of force exertions is no more than 1 in 5 min and the action time is no more than 3 s; ⎯ the duration of the repetitive task is no more than 1 h. If these conditions are not met, use Table C.1 to determine an FM that applies to the average level of force as a function of time. The force level is given as a percentage of maximum voluntary contraction, MVC, or as a percentage of the basic force limit, FB, as determined in EN 1005-3, Step A. If the percentage of MVC or the FB is difficult to assess, a value derived from the application of the CR-10 Borg scale [6], [7] can be used (second procedure). The corresponding FM can be derived from Table C.1. Use FM = 0,01 when the technical actions require “peaks” above 50 % of MVC or a score of 5 (or more) on the Borg scale for more than 10 % of the cycle time. C.4.4 Determining posture (and movements) multiplier, PM The multiplier PM is equal to 1 when one of the postures or movements, given in Table C.2 is present for less than 1/3 of the cycle time; otherwise use Table C.2 to obtain the specific PM. Choose the lowest PM (corresponding to the worst condition) between the posture and movements analysed. Also consider shoulder postures and movements by checking that the arms are not held or moved: ⎯ at about shoulder level (flexion or abduction at about 80° or more) for more than 10 % of cycle time and/or for more than 2 actions/min [42]; ⎯ in mild abduction (between 45° and 80°) for more than 1/3 of cycle time and/or for more than 10 actions/min. If one of those two conditions occurs, a risk of shoulder disorder exists and should be accurately considered. See C.8 for further explanation on how to analyse postures and movements of the upper limbs. C.4.5 Determining repetitiveness multiplier, ReM When the task requires the performance of the same technical actions for at least 50 % of the cycle time, or when the cycle time is shorter than 15 s, ReM = 0,7. Otherwise, ReM = 1. C.4.6 Determining additional multiplier, AM The main additional factors include the use of vibrating tools, gestures implying countershock (such as hammering), requirement for absolute accuracy, localized compression of anatomical structures, exposure to cold surfaces and environments, the use of gloves interfering with handling ability and high pace completely determined by the machinery. If additional factors are absent for most of the task duration, AM = 1. Otherwise: ⎯ if one or more additional factors are present at the same time for 1/3 (from 25 % to 50 %) of the cycle time, AM = 0,95; ⎯ if one or more additional factors are present at the same time for 2/3 (from 51 % to 80 %) of the cycle time, AM = 0,90; ⎯ if one or more additional factors are present at the same time for 3/3 (more than 80 %) of the cycle time, AM = 0,80. C.9 further explains how to identify and evaluate the different additional factors. C.4.7 Determining partial reference number, nRPA C.4.7.1 Monotask analysis Multiply the adjusted kf , thus obtained for t j , to obtain, for each task, j, a partial reference number of technical actions, nRPA: n kF P R A t RPA f M M eM M j j j j jj = ×× × × ( ) (C.6) Figure C.2 shows the procedure for calculating nRPAj in an monotask analysis. Figure C.2 C.4.7.2 Multitask analysis For a multitask analysis, when more than one repetitive task is present, repeat the procedure given in C.4.3 to C.4.7 for each repetitive task, j, in the shift, then sum all nRPAj as shown in Figure C.3. C.4.8 Determining recovery period multiplier, RcM Determine the recovery multiplier, RcM, and adjust the total of partial numbers of reference technical actions, nRPA,tot, in relation to the presence and distribution of recovery periods. A recovery period is a period of rest which allows restoration of the musculoskeletal function in one or more muscle/tendon groups. The following can be considered as recovery periods: ⎯ breaks (official or non-official), including the lunch break; ⎯ visual control tasks; ⎯ periods within the cycle that leave muscle groups totally at rest consecutively for at least 10 s, almost every few minutes. For repetitive tasks, the reference condition is represented by the presence, for each hour of repetitive task, of work breaks of at least ten consecutive minutes, or, for working periods lasting less than 1 h, in a ratio of 5:1 between work time and recovery time [1], [8], [48]. In relation to these reference criteria it is possible to consider how many hours of a work shift do not have an adequate recovery period. It requires the observation, one by one, of the single hours that make up a work shift: for each hour, check whether there are repetitive tasks and adequate recovery periods. For the hour preceding the lunch break (if it is present), and for the hour before the end of the shift, the recovery period is represented by these two events. On the basis of the presence or absence of adequate recovery periods within every hour of repetitive work, count the number of hours with “no recovery”. This done, adjust nRPA,tot and determine RcM in accordance with Table C.3. Table C.3 — Elements for determining RcM Without adequate recovery, h 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Recovery multiplier, RcM 1 0,90 0,80 0,70 0,60 0,45 0,25 0,10 0 C.4.9 Determining duration multiplier, tM Determine the duration multiplier, t M, and adjust nRPA,tot in relation to the daily duration, in minutes, of all repetitive tasks. Within a working shift, knowing the overall duration of manual repetitive tasks is important for determining the overall risk for upper limbs. When repetitive manual tasks last for a relevant part of the shift, t M = 1. In some contexts, however, there may be differences with respect to this more “typical” scenario (e.g. regularly working overtime, part-time work, repetitive manual tasks for only a part of a shift); the duration multiplier considers these changes with respect to usual exposure conditions. Table C.4 gives the values of t M in relation to the overall duration of manual repetitive tasks. Once RcM and t M have been identified, the overall number of reference technical actions, nRTA, within a shift, can be calculated using Equation (C.7): n n Rt RTA RPA,tot cM M C.5 Step 3 Obtain the OCRA Index risk by comparing, for each upper limb, the number of ATA carried out during a work shift (obtained in step 1) and the number of RTA (determined in step 2) using Equation (C.1). Then use Table C.5 to evaluate the risk and determine the consequences to be acted upon. Table C.5 — Final assessment criteria Zone OCRA Index value a Risk level Consequences Green u 2,2 No risk UL-WMSD (PA) forecast not significantly different from that expected in the reference population Acceptable: no consequences Yellow 2,3–3,5 Very low risk UL-WMSD (PA) forecast higher than previous but lower than twice that expected in the reference population Improve structural risk factors (posture, force, technical actions, etc.) or take other organizational measures Red > 3,5 Risk UL-WMSD (PA) forecast more than twice that expected in the reference population Redesign tasks and workplaces according to priorities a The higher the value, the higher the risk. The OCRA Index “critical values” reported in Table C.5 should be used to assist in better framing the risk assessment and to guide any consequent preventative actions more effectively, rather than being treated as rigid numbers splitting results between “risk” or “no risk”. For instance, although it is theoretically fair to state that an OCRA Index value of 3,4 represents an uncertain risk, and that an OCRA Index value of 3,6 represents a definite risk, it is equally fair to say that the difference between these two values is negligible, and that the user should pay due attention to trends in OCRA results (also using the forecasting methods supplied). See C.10 for the criteria to be adopted for OCRA Index classification as well as information on forecast models of the expected PA by one or more UL-WMSD. C.6 Identifying technical actions C.6.1 General Technical actions, TA, imply musculoskeletal activity of the upper limbs. They should not be identified by a single joint movement, but rather with a complex movement involving one or more joints and segments in the completion of a simple working task [10], [11]. The task analysis methods generally used in industry identify the elementary movements of a given operation to determine the time required to accomplish it. The two most common methods, covered in References [3], [4], [5], [14], [15], [19], [20], [22], [23], [24], [25], [30], [33], [36], [44], [46], [47], [49] and [50], are ⎯ chronometer analysis, and ⎯ predetermined time systems, PTS, such as MTA (motion time analysis), MTS (motion time system), WF (work factor), the methods/time measurement systems MTM 1, MTM 2, MTM 3, MTM V, MTM MEK and MTM UAS, and MODA PTS (modular analysis predetermined time systems). The technical actions are similar (even if not identical) to the elements considered in the task analysis methods listed above. Thus, they are more easily recognized by technicians since their identification and the task analysis methods both aim towards the description of the technical movements carried out by the operator to complete a work cycle. Table C.6 gives the criteria for counting actions as technical actions. Table C.6 — Criteria for counting technical actions Technical action Criteria Move Only when ⎯ the object moved weighs more than 2 kg (with the hand in grip) or 1 kg (with the hand in pinch), and ⎯ the upper limb has a wide movement covering a distance of > 1 m. Only when the object is positioned beyond reach of working area limits A2, B2 and C2 Reach , shown here. A2 maximum working area height: 730 mm B2 maximum working area width: 1 170 mm C2 maximum working area depth: 415 mm NOTE Adapted from ISO 14738. Grasp Grasping of an object with hand or fingers in order to carry out an activity or task. Synonyms: take, hold, grip, grip again, take again, etc. Grasp with one hand Grasp again with other hand The action of passing an object from hand to hand is considered two separate technical actions: ⎯ one TA for the right hand (grasp with one hand); ⎯ the other TA for the left (grasp with other hand). Position Positioning an object or tool at a pre-established point. Synonyms: position, lean, put, arrange, put down; equally, re-position, put back, etc. Putting in Pulling out Only when use of force required. Synonyms: to insert, to extract. Push/Pull Considered TA because of need to apply force (even if only little) in order to obtain a specific result. Synonyms: to tear, to press. Release, Let go Considered TA except where, once object is no longer necessary, it is simply “released” by opening the hand or the fingers. Table C.6 (continued) Technical action Criteria Start-up Start-up of a tool requires the use of a push-button or lever by parts of the hand, or by one or more fingers. If start-up done repeatedly, count one technical action for every start-up. Synonyms: press button, lift/lower lever. Specific actions during a phase Other actions that specifically describe the processing of a part/object: ⎯ to bend or fold; ⎯ to bend or curve, deflect; ⎯ to squeeze, rotate, turn; ⎯ to settle, to shape; ⎯ to lower, hit, beat; ⎯ to brush (count each brush passage on part to be painted); ⎯ to grate (count each passage on part to be grated); ⎯ to smooth or polish (count each passage on part to polish); ⎯ to clean (count each passage on part to clean); ⎯ to hammer (count each single hit on part); ⎯ to throw; ⎯ etc. Identify and count each action once for every repetition. EXAMPLE “Turn twice” equals two technical actions, “lower three times” equals three technical actions, “four brush strokes” equals four technical actions. Carry Carrying an object shall be considered as a TA only when ⎯ the object weights more than 2 kg with the hand in grip or 1 kg with the hand in pinch, and ⎯ the walking distance is > 1m Walk and visual inspection are not considered technical actions, as they do not imply any activity of the upper limbs. Count identical actions each and every time they are repeated. When defining the frequency, f (number of technical actions per minute), count the single technical action, not its duration. C.6.2 Examples of counting and identifying C.6.2.1 Example 1 — Pick and place The operation described here is the picking up of a workpiece (a cylinder) from a container and its placing in a hole on the workbench close to the body — a so-called pick (first technical action) and place (second technical action) operation. In this example, only the right upper limb is being worked and the two technical actions present in the cycle are only for that limb (see Table C.7) [57]. After identifying the technical actions, count their number in the cycle and, timing the cycle length in seconds, calculate using Equation (C.8), for the right and left upper limbs separately, with their frequency expressed as the number of technical actions per minute: C TC 60 f n t = × (C.8) Table C.7 — Counting technical actions — Pick and place Technical action Left upper limb Right upper limb — Pick up cylinder — Place cylinder in hole Total number of technical actions, nTC 0 2 Cycle time, tC, s 6 6 Frequency, f, TA/min — 20 When it becomes necessary for the operator to re-grasp and reposition the workpiece, this counts as two new technical actions (see Table C.8). Table C.8 — Counting technical actions — Pick and place, re-grasp and reposition Technical action Left upper limb Right upper limb — Pick up cylinder — Place cylinder in hole — Re-grasp — Reposition Total number of technical actions, nTC 0 4 Cycle time, tC, s 6 6 Frequency, f, TA/min — 40 C.6.2.4 Example 4 — Cyclical use of tool with repeated and identical actions In this example, using a drill, the operator makes a hole at three different points. After gripping the drill with the right hand (technical action 1), he places it over the point where the hole is to be drilled, pushes the button to start the drill, pushes the drill to obtain the hole, then extracts the drill. These four actions are each repeated three times (total of 12 technical actions) before the drill is put down. The total number of technical actions is therefore 14, all of them performed using the right upper limb. NOTE If the tool is suspended and returned to its original position passively, the release action is not counted. See Table C.11. Table C.11 — Counting technical actions — Cyclical use of tool with repeated and identical actions Technical action Left upper limb Right upper limb — Grasp drill — Place on 1st hole — Operate by pressing button — Push to make 1st hole — Remove drill — Place on 2nd hole — Operate by pressing button — Push to make 2nd hole — Remove drill — Place on 3rd hole — Operate by pressing button — Push to make 3rd hole — Remove drill — Replace drill Total number of technical actions, nTC 0 14 Cycle time, tC, s 14 14 Frequency, f, TA/min 0 60 Operate describes the action of using the hand or finger(s) to operate the drill Push indicates the need to apply force, even if minimal Remove indicates the need to perform the operation using force, even if minimal Place describes the need to place the tool in a predetermined spot C.6.2.5 Example 5 — Technical actions not carried out in every cycle There are cases where some of the technical actions are not carried out in every cycle, but only once every few cycles. These actions are counted within each of the cycles as fractions of technical actions. In this example, re-grasp and reposition are done every two cycles: each is counted as 0,5 of a technical action per cycle. See Table C.12. Table C.12 — Counting technical actions — Technical actions not carried out in every cycle Technical action Left upper limb Right upper limb Take cylinder — — Take cylinder — Place cylinder in hole — Re-grasp a — Reposition a Total number of technical actions, nTC 0 3 Cycle time, tC, s 6 6 Frequency, f, TA/min — 30 a Counts as half an action. C.7 Determination of force levels C.7.1 General Force represents the biomechanical involvement necessary to carry out a given action or sequence of actions. Force can be intended as an external, applied force, or an internal tension developed in the muscle, tendon and joint tissues. The need to develop force during work-related actions can be related to moving or keeping still the tools and objects, or to keeping a part of the body in a given position. The use of force can also be related to static or dynamic actions, both of which are contractions. When the first occurs, it is generally described as a static load, which some authors describe as a distinct risk element [17]. The need to use force repetitively is scientifically considered as a risk factor for tendon and muscle disorders. Furthermore, a multiplicative interaction has been shown between force and (action) frequency, especially for disorders affecting tendons or nerves. Force quantification in actual work situations is difficult. Some scientists use a semi-quantitative estimation of external force via the weight of the objects being handled. In other cases, it has been suggested that mechanical or electronic dynamometers be used. Surface electromyography techniques can be used to quantify internal forces exerted by muscles. All of these methods present implementation difficulties. Effects of physical loads will be estimated by force multipliers, FM. Force multipliers can be determined in two different ways depending on whether or not workers are known individually. Accordingly, two different procedures may be applied: a biomechanical approach based on user group strength distributions, and a psychophysical approach using the CR-10 Borg scale [6], [7]. C.7.2 Procedure 1 — Biomechanical approach based on user group strength distributions The following procedure enables the determination of force multipliers, FM, for optional but well-defined working populations in anonymous situations, where the operators are not known individually. a) Analyse a given work cycle to detect major workloads. b) Obtain a set of 100 % MVC reference distribution functions for each workload, i, detected. c) Adjust all 100 % MVCi reference distributions to the demographic profile (age and gender) of the envisaged user population. d) Determine percentile force limits, FL, (e.g. 15th percentile) for each major activity, i, allowing a majority (e.g. 85 %) to work at FLi levels. e) Normalize actual loads, Li , using FLi . This yields % MVCi values that are not exceeded by the majority selected (e.g. 85 %). f) Calculate an average % MVC value integrating all of the major workloads of a cycle using Equation (C.9): Error! Objects cannot be created from editing field codes. (C.9) where t C is the cycle time; ∆t i is the duration of exposure to workload i; % MVCi is the % MVC value under workload i. See Figure C.4 which illustrates steps a) to f). g) Find the appropriate FM for each work cycle, as shown in Figure C.5. C.7.3 Procedure 2 — Psychophysical approach using CR-10 Borg scale Applied forces may be estimated individually by a specific scale proposed by Borg (category scale for the rating of perceived exertion, CR-10 scale, see References [6] and [7]). This scale can be used to describe muscular effort perceived in any body region. The results of the implementation of the CR-10 scale, when assessed with an adequate number of workers, have an accuracy roughly comparable to that of surface electromyography. The relationship between CR-10 scale results and exerted force (in maximum % MVC) is: 10*CR − 10 ≅ force, in percent [16]. Quantification of the effort perceived by the whole upper limb should theoretically take place for every single action that makes up a cycle. For practical reasons, the actions that require minimal muscle involvement could be identified as having a 0,5 value in Borg’s scale. Then the description procedure could only consider those actions, or groups of actions, that require more force than the minimal amount, always using Borg’s scale. Once this procedure has been carried out, the average weighted score for the whole of the cycle must be calculated (see Table C.13). Based on practical experience, the following is recommended. a) The study on force should come after that on technical action frequency: one must already know how the cycle works and, especially, the order and intensity of the successive force requirements inside the cycle. b) Ask the worker (user) whether there are technical actions inside the cycle that require muscle effort of the upper limbs. It is important to put the question in this way, because the worker often confuses muscle effort with the general tiredness that he/she feels at the end of a shift. c) Once the actions, which imply the use of force, have been exemplified, ask the worker for a rating between 0 and 10 on a scale form. Ascribe the relevant duration to each of the strength exertions — in seconds and then as a percentage of the cycle time. Since exposure assessment procedures are also intended to be preventive, it is important to ask the worker to explain the reason for strength exertions. This is information of immediate practical interest because the presence of force when carrying out an action could be due to a technical defect in the product or tools used, or to a breakdown or a wrong choice of mechanical aids. Such problems are usually easily solvable. d) Once the actions requiring force have been pinpointed and ranked according to Borg’s scale, by ascribing to them a duration within the cycle, then all other technical actions in the remaining cycle time can be given the same score. e) It is important that the worker does the scoring of the perceived physical effort in a given action him or herself, as, if this were done by an external observer, there would be major errors. In fact — and this is especially true of actions made by the smaller joints or for specific joint positions (pushing a button or a lever with the fingers, pinching, etc.) — the use of force is rarely perceivable by an external observer, even if he or she is highly trained. f) Once all information is obtained from the worker, record any action requiring “peaks” (above 5 on Borg’s scale), and calculate the average weighted score for all actions in the cycle as in the example of Table C.13. Table C.13 — Example calculation of average % MVC value (procedure 1) and average score of perceived effort (procedure 2) considering all technical actions in a 35 s work cycle (A) (B1) (B2) A × B1 A × B2 Subdivision in time within 35 s cycle s Percentage subdivision of level of exertion in time Percentage of MVC or FL Borg scale score % MVC or FL perceived effort 20 57 5 0,5 2,85 0,285 8 23 20 2 4,60 0,460 7 20 40 4 8,00 0,800 Final score 15,45 1,545 C.8 Analysis of posture, types of movements and their repetitiveness Upper limb postures and movements during repetitive tasks are of fundamental importance in contributing towards the risk of various musculoskeletal disorders. Much agreement can be found in the technical literature as to the potential damage from awkward postures and movements of each joint, from postures maintained for a long time (even if not extreme), and from specific, repetitive movements of the various segments. The analysis of postures and movements will concentrate on each single segment of the upper limbs (hand, wrist, elbow, shoulder) and is aimed at checking the presence and time pattern in the cycle (frequency, duration) of static postures and dynamic movements involving each of the segments/joints considered. The description may be more or less analytical but shall at least address a) technical actions requiring postures or movements of a single segment beyond a critical level of angular excursion (the angular excursion critical level can be determined according to criteria available in the literature), b) technical actions involving static postures and/or movements which, even in acceptable angular excursion, are maintained or repeated in the same way (repetitiveness), and c) the duration, expressed as a fraction of cycle/task time, of each of the conditions of a) and b). The combination of these descriptive factors (posture/time) will provide the classification of effort for each segment considered. In order to identify the so-called angular excursion critical levels (awkward postures and movements), reference should be made to ISO 11226 and, if necessary, to data and proposals available in the literature (see References [2], [8], [10], [12], [17], [29], [34], [35] and [45]) which are quite convergent, though differing in the level of analytical detail (inclusion/exclusion of some kinds of movement, critical excursion values of main movements, etc.). An accurate description of posture and movements can also be considered a predictive element for specific pathologies of the upper limbs, which can be foreseen for exposed operators in the presence of other risk elements (frequency, force, duration, etc.). The description/assessment of the postures and movements shall be done over a representative cycle for each of the repetitive tasks examined. This shall be via the description of the duration of the postures and/or movements of the four main anatomical segments (both right and left): ⎯ posture and movements of the arm with respect to the shoulder (flexion, extension, abduction); ⎯ movements of the elbow (flexions-extensions, pronosupinations of the forearm); ⎯ postures and movements of the wrist (flexions-extensions, radio-ulnar deviations); ⎯ postures and movements of the hand (mainly the types of grip). In order to simplify the analysis of postures and movements, for the action to be defined as heavy, it is necessary to identify that when moving, the joint segment travels over an angle greater than 40 % to 50 % of joint range (or an awkward position for gripping with the hand). Heavy joint involvement is quantified with different scores extrapolated from the data on the subjective perception of joint involvement [10]. When studying the postures and movements of the shoulder, of mention is a study [42] that shows an increased risk of shoulder disorders when the arm is moved or maintained at about shoulder level (extreme elevation) for more than 10 % of the cycle time. As far as the types of handgrip are concerned, some of them (pinch, palmar grip, hook grip, narrow span) are considered to be less favourable than the power grip, and are therefore classified as implying medium/high involvement. The following figures illustrate the main joint movements of the upper limbs (see Figure C.6 and Figure C.7) and, for the hand, the different types of grip (see Figure C.8) NOTE Table C.2 summarizes the degrees beyond 40 % to 50 % of joint excursion range. Posture evaluation involves the following five operating steps. a) Describe the postures and/or movements, separately for the right and left joints. b) Establish whether there is joint involvement in a “risk” area (awkward postures and/or movements), and its timing within the cycle: ⎯ 1/10 from 10 % to 24 % of the cycle time; ⎯ 1/3 from 25 % to 50 % of the cycle time; ⎯ 2/3 from 51 % to 80 % of the cycle time; ⎯ 3/3 more than 80 % of the cycle time. c) Find the corresponding posture multiplier, PM (see Table C.2). d) Establish the presence of repetitiveness in certain movements which can be pinpointed by observing technical actions or groups of technical actions that are all equal to each other for at least 50 % of the cycle time, or by the presence of static positions maintained for at least 50 % of the cycle time, or by a very short duration of the cycle (less than 15 s but obviously characterized by the presence of actions of the upper limbs). e) Consider the corresponding repetitiveness multiplier, ReM. C.9 Definition and quantification of additional risk factors Besides the main risk factors, there are others factors of an occupational nature that should also be taken into consideration when exposure is assessed [10], [17]. They are defined here as additional risk factors — not because they are of secondary importance, but because each of them can, from time to time, be either present or absent in the contexts examined. The following list of these factors, which is only concerned with factors of a physical or mechanical nature, is not necessarily exhaustive: ⎯ the use of vibrating tools (even if only for part of the actions); ⎯ requirement for absolute accuracy (tolerance 1 mm to 2 mm in positioning a piece or object); ⎯ localized compressions on anatomical structures of the hand or of the forearm with tools, objects, or working areas; ⎯ exposure to cold or refrigeration; ⎯ the use of gloves which interfere with the handling ability required by the task; ⎯ objects handled having a slippery surface; ⎯ sudden movements, “tearing” or “ripping” movements, or fast movements required; ⎯ the required technical actions implying a countershock (hammering, hitting with a pick over hard surfaces, using the hand as a tool, etc.). Other factors, which are listed under the general term of psycho-social, have also been called into play for determining the onset of UL-WMSD. Among these are some which are concerned with the individual sphere, and cannot, therefore, be included in general methods considering a collective and occupational type of exposure of a target group. Conversely, there are factors — definable as organizational (work pace determined by machine, working on fast moving objects) — which should be taken into consideration, at least from the descriptive point of view. The description of additional factors can take place in parallel with that of technical actions or of postures and movements. For each of the physical/mechanical risk factors, it is necessary to specify the length of time (as a portion of the cycle/task time, 1/3, 2/3, 3/3) during which the factor is present, or to describe the frequency of occurrence of actions where the factor is present (especially for sudden movements and movements with countershocks). A partial exception is represented by the factor vibrations, as transmitted to the hand/arm system. In this part of ISO 11228, such vibrations are only considered to be either present or not present (for a fraction of the cycle and task time). NOTE For a detailed exposure assessment, the user is referred to ISO 2631-1, ISO 5349-1 and ISO 5349-2, or to national legislation.
  • Brett Kodama, Filmmaker

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